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CULTURE AND CHRISTIANITY              117

of the knout it demands theif fulfilment of the
orders of the mass. A dictated world-view
paralyses creative conscience and the only thing
which can stand against it is the heroic resistance
of free conscience.

The bribery of these creators of culture has
been made easy because their situation, both
spiritually and materially, is so difficult. With-
out social protection, they have become the typical
unemployed. The intellectual class is threatened
either with disappearance for lack of use or
with becoming obedient servants to the ideo-
cratic state, with its dictatorship over the spirit.
The upper intellectual class has long been living
a closed and isolated life, deprived of any broad
social basis, and apart from the common life
of the people. We have seen a complete separa-
tion between the theoretical and the practical
mind, between intellect and action, between the
spirit and the material. This has produced
debility and decadence.

Humanism, that foundation of European cul-
ture, was unable to restore unity and to support
the cultured class, once cosmic winds began to
blow. Humanism is unable to resist the process
of technici2ing life, the rise of the masses to power,
the process of democratization. It cannot save
the aristocratic element in culture, or personal
originality. Now an attempt is being made to